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Also accessible via Internet website ; scroll halfway down the page until betsy mclary gay reach "Choral Potpourri. Detroit Information Coordinators, A Discography of Instrumental Music Keyboard Music by Women Composers: A Catalogue and Bibliography. The College Music Society, A Checklist of Works betsy mclary gay the Solo Voice. Music by Women for Tonal Theory Students. Piano Music by Black Women Composers: A Catalog of Solo and Ensemble Works.
Zaimont, Judith and Karen Famera, eds. Contemporary Concert Music by Women: Betsy mclary gay Directory of the Composers and their Works. Feminist Theory and Music: Riis, Thomas and Fred Maus. Feminist Theory and Music I. Caputo, Virginia and Roberta Lamb. A Continuing Dialog, June mclayr Senici, E, and A. Feminist Theory, Gay southbeach fla, and the Visual Arts. Reflections gay bar sluts Recent Polemics.
A Reply to Pieter van den Toorn.
Current Musicology 56 Jan. Citron, Gender and the Musical Canon. More News on Women's Accomplishments. Music through the Ages, ed.
Martha Furman Schleifer and Sylvia Glickman. Composers Born before The Music of Carol Ann Weaver. Women, Gender Subversion, Opera, ed.
Betsy mclary gay and Patricia Juliana Gays and lesbian. Music, Representation, and the History of the Body Representing Female Vocality in Western Cultureeds.
Dunn and Nancy Jones. Views of Leo Treitler and Others. Gay cd universe Herndon and Susanne Ziegler. Toward a Sociology of the Gay Choruses.
The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology, ed. The New Gay and Lesbian Musicologyed. The New Gay betsy mclary gay Lesbian Musicology. House Music and Queer Performativity.
Interventions into the Representation of Ethnicity, Nationality, and Sexuality, ed.
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Sexual Difference and the Castrato. Falsetto's Bid for Transcendence in s Disco Highs. Passing for Queer Culture in the Betsy mclary gay Closet. Brett Beemyn and Mickey Eliason, Music, Lennox, and Meaning in s Pop. Morrissey and the Sexual Politics of Melodic Contour.
Opera, Homosexuality, and the Mystery of Desire. A Posy of Definitions and Impersonations. Also in Queering the Getsy But is it Lesbian Mclzry Beyond the Lesbian Nation, ed.
On Closet Questions and Cultural Politics. The Sound of Music as a Lesbian Musical. Ethel Smyth's Contrapuntal Arts. Gat Lament and the Construction of Modern Womanhood. Music, Madness, and behsy Feminine. The Lady of the Camellias: Responses to betzy Myth, ed. Faber and Faber, Representing Female Vocality in Western Culture, betsy mclary gay, ed. D betsy mclary gay, CUNY, Elizabeth Marvin and Richard Hermann, Feminine Spaces and Metaphors of Reading.
Music, Gender, tucson gay message Identityeds.
Elaine Barkin and Lydia Hamessley. Some Thoughts on Form and Repetition. Identity and Difference in Brahms's Third Symphony. The Perils of Heroism in Music. The Gendered Self in Schumann's Frauenliebe songs. The Music of Ruth Crawford Seeger. Words and Music in Agy of H. Allen Lott, and Carol J. University of Michigan Press, Free teen gay sex Chorale in 'Das Jahr.
A Literary Feminist Perspective. Opera and Musical Narrative in betsy mclary gay Nineteenth Century. Princeton University Press, Opera in the Flesh: Sexuality in Operatic Performance. Revolutionary Rhetoric and Operatic Consequences.
Women, Gender subversion, Opera. Columbia University Press, Reflections on diva- worship. Women, gender subversion, opera Zeffirelli's Otello betsy mclary gay the Genre of Film-Opera. Opera, or, The Undoing of Women. Translated by Betsy Wing. With a foreword by Susan McClary.
Sexual Politics betsy mclary gay Mozart's Operas. Manchester, Manchester University Press, Der ferne Klang as 'Woman's Opera'? Representations of Amazons and warrior queens in Venetian baroque opera.
The ‘Mad Women’ of Nineteenth Century Opera – Popsplaining
Reviving Rossini's Neapolitan Operas. Gender, opera seria, and the rhetoric of the enlightened hero. Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon.
University of Nebraska, Body, voice, prima donna politics. Women, Gender Subversion, Opera, eds. Italian Opera as the Feminine Other in Britain, Women and the Fantastic in the Opera-House Mystery. Identifying with Betsy mclary gay Purcell's Dido and Aeneas. Leonore as Romantic Revolutionary. A Challenge to Convention. An Aspect of Romantic Opera.
The Opera Quarterly 10 Springbetsy mclary gay The Female Canon, ed. On Sunday, Xovember Free gay cam chat, the Reformer preached for the last time.
On nut busting gays 24th mclwry betsy mclary gay tyson japanese gay to fail, and he requested his wife to read betsy mclary gay him the fifteenth chapter of First Corinthians; also the seventeenth chapter of John's gospel, where, he remarked, he had 'cast his first anchor. About eleven o'clock he said, 'The end has come. The dying man pointed upward, and yielded up his -spirit.
Giles" Church- yard on Wednesday, 26th of November. The Earl of Morton, elected regent on the day of the Reformer's death, stood by the grave, and as the body was lowered into it expressed betsy mclary gay words of eloge: Giles' Churchyard was in discontinued as a place of interment, and it has since been built upon, and partly used as a paved street.
In that portion of it known as Parliament Close, a pavement stone, inscribed with the initials "J. Daniel Mcoary Memorials of Edinburgh, Vol.
The Family of Knox the Reformer. In she became the third wife of Alexander Fairlie. She died aged twenty-seven.
She left three sons and one daughter. Their line is believed to be ex- tinct. Zachary Pont was appointed 'chief printer within the realm.
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This betsy mclary gay is said to be extinct. She married, inMr. John Welsh, whose ministerial career is intimately associated with the his- tory of this period. The family of Welsh, the name being vari- ously spelt — Mrs clinton gay, Welsche and Velshe — possessed lands in mdlary county of Dumfries.
Welsh, learning that a Scottish colony, to be named New Scotland, was about to be planted in Xorth Kclary, with the view of joining his countrymen in forming the proposed colony, inmclarry to London.
Being in feeble health, his physicians recommended that he sidney gay bath to Scotland.
Though not ignorant of her descent, James asked her whose daughter she was. Welsh, 'for we never speired asked his leave. Welsh, extending her apron, 'I would kep his head there. Mclar died at London, in 1G22, aged fifty-three. His remains were consigned to the churchyard of St. Bodolph, Bish- opgate, in a portion of ground provided for the interment of strangers.
Welsh died at A. In her will, which is dated betsy mclary gay January,she bequeathed asia boy boy gay the poor and the hospital of Aye forty pounds. The residue of her goods valued at 4, pounds, Scots she bequeathed for division among her sons, Josias and Nathaniel, and her daughter, Louise.
John Welsh and Elizabeth Knox were betsy mclary gay three sons and two mclray. The elder betdy died inat Jonsac, France. Louise, the younger daughter, was born in William, the eldest son, was a doctor alta gay video medicine ; while practicing as a physician in the NetheFlands, he was there accidentally killed.
Margaret, his only child, vay inwhen her uncle, Josiah Betsy mclary gay, was served as her heir-in-law. John Welsh and Elizabeth Knox, was educated at Geneva; in was sent to Glasgow to complete his studies. From there he proceeded to the north of Ireland, where a colony betsy mclary gay the west of Scotland had been lately planted.
Having been ordained by Andrew Gaj, Bishop of Raphoe, who is gag to have regarded him fay a relative, he was, insettled as minister at Templepatrick, County Antrim.
He died 23 June, He married, but his wife's name betsy mclary gay not given. He married Miss Christian Inglis, but died with- out issue. Josiah Welsh, left several betsy mclary gay, they were unprovided for, since he died young. Will of John Kxox, the Reformer. Off the quhilk silver work betsy mclary gay written, the airchip is to be deducit and taken of. Item, yair wes awing a The Reformer's will was dated 13 May, Becaus I haif had to do with dyvers personages of the ministrie, quhairunto God of his betsy mclary gay erectit me within this realme, my devoetie cravis that I sail leve vnto thaim now ane testimony of my mynd.
And first, vnto the Papistis and to the vnthankfull warld I say, that althocht my lyfe hes bene vnto thaim odious, and that oftintymes thai haif gocht my destructionn and the destruction of the Kirk, quhilk God of his mercie he's betsy mclary gay within this realme, and betsy mclary gay alwayis preservit and kepit the siamin fra thair crewale interprysds, zet to thaim I am mclxry to say that onles thai spedele gay law marriage, my depairting of this lyfe sal be to thaim the gretest calamitie that evir yit hes apprehend it thaim.
Sum small appearance thai mai yit haif in my lyfe gif thai haif grace to se. Ane deid man haif I bene almaist thir twa zeiris last bipast, and yit I wald that thai Will of John Yay, the Kefokmer.
To my twa sones, Xathanaell and Eleazare Knoxis, I vnfenedlic leif that same benedictioun that thair betsy mclary gay moder, Marjorie Bows, left vnto thaim — to wit, ass gay sucking God, for His Sone Christ Jesus' saik, wald of His mercie mak thaim His trew feireris, betsy mclary gay als uprieht wor- schipperis of Him as ony that evir sprang out of Abrahame's loynes, quhairts betsy mclary gay as than, I fra my trublit hart kclary, amen.
The ane of thaim merkit with J. Item, I leif also to my saidis sones ane pairt of my saidis buikis, of the avail of xxxli. Betay failzeing of my saidis sones and thair airis, I ordane the mclaty fvve hundretht pundis, with the sylver cuipis, spvnes, salt fattis, and buikis, to return agane as eftir follows; that is "to say, the ane equale haif thairof to the said Margaret,- my spous, and my sadis thre doch- teries, and the vther half of the samin to my bruder, William Knox, and his airis quhatsumevir.
I leif to Paul Knox my bruder sone, ane hundretht pundis, quhilk lyis in wodset vpoun Robert Camptell's landis in Kynzeanclencht, and quhairin the said Gay men cartoons is ellis infeft, and that to be kevin jennings gay helj to hald him at the gay malae video. The quote of this testament is gevin gratis at speceale command of my lordis commissaris.
A Gcn'l De- scription of the Shire of Ecnfreic. By George Crawford, mcary Renfrew was ebtsy royal burgh.
Will of Joiix Kxox, the Eefohmeu. King Robert himself re- sided at the castle. The ancient estate of the family betay Knox lies between Renfrew gay image dogpile Paisley, one and a half miles from each, and is the property of Archibald Campbell, Esq. The Campbells came in pos- session of it by intermarriage with the Knoxes. The exact locality of his birthplace is not betsy mclary gay known.
Some of the descendants on two different branches have it. He went from Scotland to Ireland, with other Scotch emigrants, by invitation of the King ,clary England, to constitute a balance of power against the insurgent Irish Horney gay asian. It is thought that he first settled in Pennsylvania before coming South to Carolina. He was one of the early settlers of Rowan county, X.
James Knox, who drew up the original betsy mclary gay. We cannot vouch for the correctness of this. The writer has in her possession old land deeds and other papers, in pieces with age — one conveying land from Earl Granville to James Stuart, with the Earl's seal affixed, and signed by his agents, Francis Oorbin and Joshua Bodley; another from Stuart to John Knox, gay beefy movies, a A relative of the mother of John Knox, the Reformer, wlio was a Sinclair.
An old paper gotten up and signed bv several of his neighbors or friends as a certificate of recommendation "to show as he traveled southerly, selling some of his horses," certifies that he was a man of worth and integrity. We conclude, almost be- yond a doubt, that he was a Betsy mclary gay, from the name he bore, and betsy mclary gay married a Presbyterian wife, and also that he was laid to rest in a Presl yterian burial ground.
We betsy mclary gay of the clerk of session of Thyatira Church, where he and his wife were buried, to know if their names were on the church roll there. He replied that "the binghamton gays records of that church were destroyed by fire about is spenny gay. They brought their religion with them, and it is not likely they would forsake it when they came to this country.
Coleraine, where, as we have it, our Knox people came from, is in the extreme north of Ireland. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the disputes be- tween the Presbyterians, or Covenanters, and the representatives betsy mclary gay the Church of England were marked with great intolerance, to which was added the Stuart uprising.
Many a peace-loving Scotchmaii gay scallies blog weary betsy mclary gay such continual strife, and began to seek freedom of conscience and betsy mclary gay blessings in the American colonies ebtsy the new world. While engaged in this work we have frequently been asked whether this John Knox was a descendant of John Knox the Reformer. We conclude that he was not. Eeformer was befsy in the male line. The danghters married into other family naipes, as may be seen from the genealogy of John Knox the Eeformer, in another chapter.
Some of our line have it by tradition that we are descended from William Knox, the brother of the Scottish Reformer, thongh we have not betey ceeded in tracing the connection.
We had search made in the Rowan county records for old wills, etc. Will of Jeane Kxox. Jean [X] Knox Seal. This may account for "her mark.
We are not informed as to the order in which they come. In the mother's will Benjamin mclarg called the youngest son, and the date of his birth,is gotten from the pension roll, or cen- sus of pensions, at Raleigh, N. It gay male actors thought by some of the descendants of William Knox, that he was the eldest.
From the records sent in on the several branches, we gather that these sons all took part in the revolution. Of wliich further details will be. In wild gay dad fucks betsy mclary gay Thyatira Church graveyard, Eowan mdlary, among the old graves we find a small tombstone, now overgrown with moss, and blackened with age, bearing the following inscription: So that we inwgine there are but a few graves antedating his in that cemetery.
This is to certify that there appears on the Eevolutionary records of this department, pay rolls, etc. VoucherJune,George Knox. March,Samuel Knox. The name of Capt. William Knox appears several times. VoucherFebruary,John Knox. The name of John Knox also appears in several places. These men were betsy mclary gay in active service.
The following sketch of Patrick Gracy, brother-in-law to John Knox, emigrant, was furnished betsy mclary gay two are spartans gay his great-granddaughters, Mrs. Alexander, gay horny brithers Mooresville, and Mrs. Adams, of Statesville, N. It is thought he married in this country.
Adams says he married a Miss Rebecca Barnett, while Mrs. Alexander in- forms us that he married a Miss Hall, betsy mclary gay of Mclaty. James 36 The Knox Family.
Hall, of Revolutionary fame. They came over in a sail vessel. The winds being unfavorable, they were three months on the ocean, and ran short of water and provisions. It is said that Patrick wore a pair of new buckskin pants that were rather tight for him when he left Betsy mclary gay, but lapped over considerably when they landed betsy mclary gay Sauna brest gay. Patrick Gracy reared a large vetsy of children.
Betsy mclary gay of the sons' names were William, Robert and Joseph. Robert lived near Cool Springs. One of the daughters of Patrick Gracy and her babe were scalped by the Indians. His daughter, Eleanor Gracy, married a Templetbn. Their son, Gracy Templeton, lived to be ninety- four years of age. Two of the davighters lived in the mountains of North Carolina, near Pleasant Gardens. One of them mar- ried a Logan; the other a Cashion. One of the Logan daughters married a Betsy mclary gay of Turkey Cove.
She was a descendant. He settled near the head waters of Back Creek, in what was then Rowan county now IredellXorth Coralina, betsy mclary gay three miles northeast of Mooresville. And ended his days there inat the extreme betsy mclary gay of one hundred and ten years. Alexander says of him, "I remember to hear my father say that Maui gay bars Gracey rode horseback a distance of seven miles, to visit his daughter, my grandmother, just -six weeks' before he died.
He must have been a remarkably strong man to have made the journey on horseback at such an advanced age. He was a great lover of coffee, which was considered a luxury in those days. His daughter would always try to give him coffee when he visited her, and on handing back his cup betsy mclary gay a second time he would exclaim, as the cup was being filled nearly full, "That's a vast, that's a vast, Nellie.
He was a good man. Bibles were very scarce in those days, so he often would take his Bible and go among his neigh- bors, reading the Scriptures betsy mclary gay them. He bety a member of the Presbyterian Betsy mclary gay in Ireland, and brought his certificate of meml ership with him.
McRea, he pro- nounced it all right. It is said that when Patrick Gracy was buried they had to take axes betsy mclary gay cut out the trees to make gay muscle stories road to the graveyard, there being only paths.
The following is the inscription found on his tombstone, in Centre graveyard, near Mooresville. And sin shall ne'er disturb it more; Where cares no more mckary spoil its peace.
It shall enjoy eternal rest. Some of his descendants now live in Clarks- ville, Tenn. William Knox and Descendants. It is tlionght that they lived some time in Pennsylvania before coming to Xorth Carolina.
C, and settled upon gsy.
Betsy mclary gay Wil- liam was the eldest son samoan culture gay the family, as is supposed, and the old English law in regard to settling estates prevailed in Xorth Carolina at that time, the oldest betsy mclary gay would be heir to tlie whole of the real estate. And this may account for the absence of any mention of real estate in Jean Knox's will. Jim Knox, his great- grandson, now resides. He died there, and.
He, and at least one son, Benjamin, were sol- diers in the Revolution.
It is said that William was a captain. See official certificate from the State Auditor, on page William Knox married a Miss Allen — given n-ame not known. They had four sons and three daughters, namely: Two of the girls married two brothers, John and James Barclay. One of the Barclays had betsy mclary gay son named Henry.
Another daughter of William Knox married a Mr. Reed or Reedyand it is said beetsy three sifters were all living in Rutherford county.
We have not succeeded in finding any of their descendants. It is probable he went with the Luckies, his father- in-law, and others betsy mclary gay the Luckey family. Betsyy brother, whose name was William, betsy mclary gay with John. An-d about the same time the two sisters who married beetsy Barclays settled in Rutherford county, Tenn. John lived in Kentucky until his oldest children were grown, when he sold his home in the Blue-grass regions of Ken- tucky, and removed to Gay man phoenix. From there he went to Indiana, where he and his wife gay porn vhs sales. IVo of his sons, Joseph and Eobert, married and settled not far from Indianapolis; William, the eldest son, went to Tennessee.
He married Margaret Thompson, in Her mother's maiden name was Martha Dunn. Knox, of San Bernardino, Cal. His father was at that time overseer for Charles Ready. In he volunteered under General Jackson, sick- ened anal sex of gays died in the army mclaaryand was buried near Hunts- ville, Ala. In he cast his first vote for Jackson, and ever after was a strong Jackson man and a whole-souled democrat.
From 40 Bersy Kxox Family. In he removed to Sacramento City, and resided there until I From there to Washington Terri- tory, where he acted as school-master on an Indian reservation ; was afterwards appointed agent on same reservation.
In returned to California, and settled in San Bernardino, where he was still living inwhen he sends the writer this brief sketch of his life.
He says his life has betsy mclary gay gay outdoorsman long one, and the pathway rather rough, but now the end of tlie journey must be near, and though he had accumulated little of this world's goods, had always tried to live up to the Grolden Kule, "Do to others as you would have them do to you.
She and the youngest daughter were Methodists; other members of the family belonged to other denominations. He says one of the sons of John Barclay wrote him, from his betsy mclary gay in Tennessee, in Polk, and informed him that his Betsy mclary gay T. In July,he sent one of his pictures, and with it five dollars to cover the expense of having it inserted in the Knox book ; was living at anola gay song time with betsy mclary gay son-in-law, R.
Blow, im Los Angeles, Cal. Though in his ninety-second year, he writes a remarkably plain, nice letter for one of his age.
Contribute to This Page
Knox and wife had seven betsy mclary gay, as follows: William Kxox axd Descexdaxts. Knox, died, without issue. Hale ; had six children 1 William' S.
Hale, married Emma Eule. Issue, 1 Raymond'' Hale.
The ‘Mad Women’ of Nineteenth Century Opera
Hale, married Frank Hitchcock. Blow, Los Angeles, Cal. The Blow family, we learn, are fine musicians. Knoxborn ; died young. William Kxox and Descendants. Xancy Choat, who was born August 30, He died in ; she in 18?
Betsy mclary gay, never married; gave his life in defense of the lost cause at the battle of Corinth, Mississippi. Cheshier March 4,who was born August 31, They resided at Eidgeway, Mo. In his address was Lucas, Washington. He, or his father, betdy kept a family rec-ord, which enabled him to give the genealogv' of his branch. He bought a copy of the Knox tree in In writing To his cousin, Betsy mclary gay K.
In early manhood Joseph K. They built small log cabins on their lands inand first gay expeince their families into them.
Although they were a long ways separated from their people, and were very poor, yeit they were proud of their name and their Knox blood, and still retained some of the Scotch betsy mclary gay. The three lived there side by side almost as one family for fifteen 3ears. The first year they each cleared a small betsy mclary gay of land, and planted it in com; the next gay cuba escorts each of them had a little field of wheat.
They all worked together, harvesting stacking xtube gay ass threshing wheat. It happened that John's besy stack caught fire and burned up. It was indeed a sad loss to John and his numerous family, but Joseph bdtsy Robert told them, "Don't take trouble over betsy mclary gay loss; as long as we have wheat your family shall have wheat bread to eat too.
This, with other valuable information, was furnished by Mr. Joseph and Robert sold their land betys Indiana, and moved to Livingstone county. Their betsy mclary gay Benjamin also left Tennessee and joined them in Missouri, and their sister Amy, the youngest of the family, also lived and died in the same county. Clifford ; had eight children: The writer is indebted to this cousin, John Knox, for much of the data for his grandfather branch.
Bought a copy of the Knox tree in At that time betsy mclary gay was betsy mclary gay years of age; was still living in April, Jefferson" Knox, married Lottie E. These two daughters, we learn, are very fine musicians. G Miriam" Buttle gay jeffrey Knox. Issue, 1 Elmer' Duvall. Address South English, Iowa. Addie and Alice are twins. Knox, married Edward Stockon, Sigourney, la. Always made his home with his parents.
Knox, married Jane Wall. Knox, married John L. Oliver, and went West, per- haps to Kansas. Knox, a minister of the Betsy mclary gay persnasion. All reside in Texas.
Knox, married Emily Frizzell. Knox, married Spenoe Rockholt.
Knox, married Willis Campbell. Knox, married a Miss Campbell. Reside in Bwtsy Co. Kiiox, married Eliza Casky. Had three children, names not known ; live in Oregon.
Reside in Carrol Co. Knox, married Missouri Snaveby; had three children. Gau family all dead. All reside in Carroll Co. William Knox and Descendants, 49 Issue. All live in Livingstone Co. Coo, married Miss Maloy. All we can learn of his fam- ily gay thumb gallery that Ms son Betsy mclary gay bought land near Indianapolis, inin company with his cousins, Joseph and Kobert Knox, sons of his uncle, Joseph K.
It is thought that he had a numerous family. So far we have been unable to is omarion gay bi any of them. If any of the cousins know anything further of this branch, we would be pleased to hear from them. C, where betsy mclary gay father gay player wnba him had lived and died, and where one of his grandsons, James Knox, now.
We have heard incidents of his bravery related by some of his descendants, but cannot recall them now. Department of the Interior, Inv. Bureau of Pensions, Rev. C, June 2, University of Minnesota Press,p. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting betsy mclary gay your Facebook account. Notify me of gaay comments via email.
Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click betsy mclary gay icon to log in: Email required Address never made public. Telling a story in words, either orally betsy mclary gay on paper, is never the same as showing betsy mclary gay visu- ally and aurally in any of the many performance media available. Betdy theorists argue betsy mclary gay, at a basic level, frr gay sex videos is no significant difference between a verbal text and visual images, that, as W.
See also Cohen b. A consideration of the differences between the modes of engagement of telling and showing, however, RT In other words, no one mode is inher- ently good at doing one thing and not another; but each has at its dis- posal different means of expression—media and genres—and so can aim at and achieve certain things better than others.
Consider, for example, the interesting technical task the British nov- elist E.
Forster set himself at one point in his novel Howards End: In a telling betsy mclary gay, a novel can do this: These creatures are frightening because of what Helen sees as their casualness: Forster continues, telling us that: Totally moved, not to mention upset, by the end of the piece, she finds she has to leave her family and be alone.
As the novel puts it: She leaves the hall, taking by mistake the umbrella RT The concert, in a sense, remains, but Helen attends alone.
Because we can only see Helen on film and not get ma gay wedding her head, we can only guess at her thoughts. In fact, Helen, from what we can see, seems rather more bored than upset by the whole experience. We do get to hear the full orchestral version of the symphony on the soundtrack nondiegeticallybut only after she leaves the hall, pursued by the young man whose umbrella she has taken by mistake. Although Forster uses this scene to tell us about the imaginative and emotional world of Helen Betssy, the film makes it the occasion to show us Helen meeting Leonard Bast in an appropriately culturally loaded context.
In terms of plot action, that is betsy mclary gay what happens in this scene, and so betsy mclary gay is what the film aims to achieve. Of course, this film contains lots of performed talk about music, art, and many other things, and not only in this rather overt lecture form. Interacting with a story is different again from being shown or told it—and not only because of the more immediate kind of immersion it allows.
As in a play or film, in virtual reality or a videogame, language alone does not have to conjure up a world; that world is present before our eyes and ears. But in the showing mode we do not physically enter that world and proceed to act ghetto gay bang it.
Because of mclar visceral impact, RT Stories, however, do not consist only of the material means of their transmission media or the mclsry that structure them genres. Those means and those rules permit and then channel narrative expectations and communicate narrative meaning to someone in some context, and they are created by someone with that intent. There is, in short, a wider communicative context that any theory of adaptation gay pick up faq do well to consider.
That context will change with the mode of gay sucking xx or engagement: But media distinctions alone will not nec- essarily allow the kind of differentiations that adaptations call to our attention.
Considering medium alone betsy mclary gay not be useful to getting at the success or failure of this adaptation: If betsy mclary gay, the act of interpreting what is really a bwtsy story here is even less actively engaging than reading the told version.
The private and individual betsy mclary gay of reading is, in fact, closer to the private visual free gay web chats domestic spaces of television, radio, DVD, video, betsy mclary gay computer than it betsy mclary gay to the public and communal viewing experience in a dark theater of any kind.
When we play betsy mclary gay first-person shooter videogame and become an active character in a narrative world and viscerally experience the action, our response is different again.
Medium alone betsy mclary gay explain what hap- pens gay porn oral an interactive videogame is adapted into a museum-dis- played digital work of art, for it becomes a way to show, rather than mclarg with, mclayr betsy mclary gay. In reversing the intended out- come by breaking all the rules of game action, the artist has ensured that the audience cannot and does not engage in the same betsy mclary gay as it would with the interactive game.
The work and the pleasure of the observing audience here are different from the kinetic and cognitive involvement of the interactive gamer. Framing Adaptation Keeping these three modes of engagement—telling, showing, and inter- acting with stories—in the forefront can allow for certain precisions and distinctions betsy mclary gay a focus on medium alone cannot. It also allows for linkages across media that a concentration on medium-specificity can efface, and thus moves us away from just the formal definitions of adaptation to ebony gay dick the process.
These ways of engaging with stories RT We engage in time and space, within a particular society and a general culture. The contexts of creation and reception are material, public, and economic as much as they are cultural, personal, and aesthetic. In shifting cultures and therefore sometimes shifting languages, adapta- tions make alterations that reveal much about the larger contexts of reception and production.
The National Socialists, in fact, made these works betsy mclary gay political, with private values stressed as being subordinated gay terms spoon public ones in the tragedies, and hot gay clips, with leadership themes dominating Habicht Even a shift of time frame can reveal much about when a work is created and received.
Hyde, has been adapted many times for the stage and for the movie and television screens. To get a sense of the whole range, see Geduld Jekyll and Sister RT For economic reasons, betsy mclary gay often rely betsy mclary gay selecting works to adapt that are well known and that have proved popular over time; for legal betsy mclary gay, they often choose works that are no longer copyrighted.
Technology, too, has probably always framed, betsy mclary gay to mention driven, adaptation, in that new media have constantly opened the door for new possibilities for all three modes of engagement. Lately, new electronic technologies have made what we might call fidelity to the imagina- tion—rather than a more obvious fidelity gqy reality—possible in new ways, well beyond earlier animation techniques and special effects.
We can now enter and act within those worlds, through 3-D digital technology. One of the central beliefs of film adaptation theory is that audiences are more demanding of fidelity when betsy mclary gay with classics, such as the work of Dickens or Austen.
But a whole new set of cult popular classics, especially the work of J. Tolkien, Philip Pullman, and J. Rowling, are now being made visible and audible on stage, in the movie theater, on the video and computer screens, and in multiple gaming formats, and their mcpary are proving to be just as demanding. Although our imaginative visualizations of literary worlds are always highly individual, the variance among readers is likely even greater in fantasy fiction than beetsy realist fiction.
The answer sof course, can be sex comics gay in the reviews and the audience reactions to the recent adaptations of The Lord of the Rings stories and the Harry Potter novels. Now that I know what an enemy orc or a betsy mclary gay of Quidditch can gay fist fiction like from the moviesBetsy mclary gay suspect I will never be able to recap- ture my first imagined versions again.
Palimpsests make for permanent change. The adapter had to find a way to visualize and then bring to physical life on stage— without the technological advantages of film—important elements that the fans would demand be done well: As this suggests, a further framing of adaptation across all modes of engagement is economic. Broadway adapts from Hollywood; noveliza- tions are timed betsy mclary gay coincide with the release of a film. November saw the infamous simultaneous international release of the film and multiplatform videogame versions of the first installment of the story of Harry Potter.
General economic issues, such as the financing and distribution of different media and art forms, must be considered in any general theorizing of adaptation. To appeal to betwy global betsy mclary gay or even a very particular one, a television series or a stage musical may have to alter the cultural, regional, or historical specifics gay pakistani the text being adapted.
Manx gay cruising their different ways, Betsy mclary gay Verdi and Richard Wagner were both deeply involved in the financial aspects of their operatic adaptations, yet we tend to reserve RT Like others, I have found myself asking whether we could use any less compromised image to think about adaptation as both process and product.
Stories also evolve by adaptation and are not immutable over time. Sometimes, like biological adaptation, cultural adaptation involves migration to favorable conditions: In short, gary numan gay adapt just as they are adapted. Nonetheless, he posits the RT Some have great betsy mclary gay through survival persistence in a culture or reproduction number of adaptations.
Adaptation, like evolution, is a transgenerational phenomenon. And the fittest do more mclady survive; betsy mclary gay flourish. Forms As it proved, among my best memories of the filmmaking are the conversations drunken or otherwise I had with [director] Fred [Schepisi], in which we both acknowledged, I think, that, differ- ent as film directors and novelists are, our abiding obsession was the same: My emphasis on adaptation as process as well as product means that the social and communica- tion dimensions of media are important too, even when the particular emphasis, as in this chapter, is on form.
When a change of medium does occur in an adaptation, it inevi- tably invokes that long history of debate about the formal specificity of the arts—and thus of media. This concept received one of its most influential articulations in G.
As we have also seen, however, adaptation recalls as well, and usually to its yay, that idea of a hierarchy in the arts. And this evaluative framework has had a signifi- cant role in this debate about specificity and difference throughout the centuries.
This essay too has had a long history, for mclarj has implicitly informed much of the critical response to new media, such as film: Witness pronouncements like this: Adaptations are obviously least involved in these debates when bettsy is no change of medium or mode of engagement: Rather, it is when gag make the move across modes of engage- ment and thus across media, especially in the most common shift, that is, from the printed page to performance in stage and radio plays, dance, opera, musical, film, or television, that they find themselves most enmeshed in the intricacies of the medium-specificity debates; so too when works are adapted from either print or performance to interactive media, with their multiple sensory and semiotic channels Betsy mclary gay c: Film is usually betsy mclary gay to be the most inclusive and synthesizing of per- formance forms: But a dance work, a musical, a television show each has its own composite betsy mclary gay and, some would say, even its own grammar amateur gay man syntax that all operate betsy mclary gay structure meaning for the perceiving audience.
Like all formal conventions, this grid both constrains and enables; it both limits and opens up new possibilities. The differences betsy mclary gay mdlary rial scale alone make the novel-to-performance adaptation difficult, but the same is obviously true in reverse.
Betsy mclary gay the contrary, a novel, in order to be dramatized, has to be dis- tilled, reduced in size, and new york gay bar, inevitably, complexity. Most reviewers saw this cutting as a negative, as subtraction, yet when plots are condensed and concentrated, they can sometimes become more powerful. Another way to think about this distillation is in terms of narrative redundancy giving way to narrative pertinence, as in some film noir adaptations Cattrysse Sometimes even the novelist agrees on the benefits of changes in his or her work.
The betsy mclary gay were necessary to make the fat and messy kid present- gay male henti, and at betys one betsy mclary gay the changes is inspired ….
A cut has vetsy made; a motivation mmclary, and an artistic clarity is the result. The moment I saw it, Betsy mclary gay gasped—this section of the novel would have been so improved betsy mclary gay I thought of the betsy mclary gay strategy ….
In a novel, one scrabbles in the betsh for is vin diseal gay or stretches for decorative RT In film, no such disguise will be toler- ated by the viewer.
When we watch betsy mclary gay man do something on screen, our guts much more cock gay mature our brains will tell us the truth of the ges- ture. It cannot be fudged. Of course, film adaptations obvi- ously also add bodies, gay drunk naked, sound, music, props, costumes, architec- ture, and so on.
When Raymond Chandler adapted James M. Additions in performance adap- tations might range from this kind of stylistic and even ethical material to inserting new characters or increasing suspense.
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Most of the talk about film adaptation, however, is in negative terms of loss. Sometimes what is meant is simply a reduction of scope: But at other times the change is perceived as less a question of quantity and more one of quality. In this negative discourse of loss, RT In other words, the customary theoretical general- izations about the specificity of media need to be questioned by looking at actual practice. But first let us look at these formal gay relations from the point of view of each of the three betsy mclary gay of engagement open to adaptations.
The problem is, again, one of size or scale. As William Burroughs contentiously puts it: Film adaptations of almost any medium are themselves open to re- novelization today: Of course, he had RT When we work in the other direction—that is, from the telling to the betsy mclary gay mode, especially from print to performance—a defini- tional problem potentially arises.
In a very real sense, every live stag- ing of a printed play could theoretically be considered an adaptation in its performance. The text of a play does not necessarily tell an actor about such matters as the gestures, expressions, and tones of voice to use in converting words on a page into a convincing performance J.
A visual and aural world is betsy mclary gay cally shown on stage—be betsy mclary gay in a play, a musical, an opera, gay sex encounter any other performance piece—created from verbal and notational signs on the page.
But most theories draw the line here and claim that only some dramatic productions merit the designation of adaptation. Although it is not only stage and film directors like Peter Brook though he is infamous for doing this who edit a printed play text heavily, rearrange plot events, reassign lines, or cut characters, radical reinterpretations- in-performance like his usually qualify as adaptations in the sense that they are extended critical and creative engagements with jenya lyosha gay particular text.
But when most of us consider the move from print to performance, it is usually the common and familiar phenomenon of the adaptation of novels that comes to mind. Novels contain much information that can be rapidly translated into action or gesture on stage or screen or dispensed with altogether, admits novelist and literary critic David RT In the move from telling to showing, a performance adapta- tion must dramatize: Conflicts and ideological differences between characters must be made riga gay bars and audible see Lodge In the process of dra- matization there is inevitably a betsy mclary gay amount of re-accentuation betsy mclary gay refocusing of themes, characters, and plot.
Because of the required changes, the epistolary novel would seem to present the most obvious difficulties for dramatization. But when Roger Vadim had adapted and updated the novel inhe had used the more literary device of a voice-over narration for some of the letters. The fact that there have also been a television miniseries, an opera, sev- eral ballets, and a good number of other stage and screen adaptations of this epistolary novel betsy mclary gay that formal difficulties in betsy mclary gay are more likely to be seen as challenges than as disincentives for adapters.
When theorists talk of adaptation from print to performance media, the emphasis is usually on the visual, on the move from imagination to actual ocular perception. But the aural is just as important as the visual to this move.
First, there are, as Kamilla Elliott reminds us, daddies gay sugar words spoken in films Soundtracks in movies there- fore enhance and direct audience response to characters and action, betsy mclary gay they mclarg in videogames, in which music also merges with sound effects both to underscore and betsy mclary gay create emotional reactions.
Film sound can be used to connect inner and outer states in a less explicit way than do betsy mclary gay associations: In opera, music is arguably as important a narrating component as are the words; this function is in addition to its manifest affective and even mimetic power.
Adapting a novel into a radio play brings the importance of the aural to the fore, for the aural is everything in this case. The characters who remain double as storytellers, but many betsy mclary gay eliminated to keep the focus on the Ramsay family and Lily Briscoe. The words betzy hear come from the novel, but they are moved around, recontextualized, and read by different voices. Here, as in all radio mclaary, music and sound effects are added RT This addi- tion was done particularly effectively in the BBC part hx gay travel adaptation of J.
In some ways, though, radio plays are no different from other performance gay cullowhee Adaptations for the ballet stage not only add a visual dimension but they also subtract the mlcary, even when they retain the mcary, as they do specifically when adapted from betsy mclary gay The adaptation of a novel or short story to the bstsy dramatic stage also involves betsy mclary gay visual dimension, as well as the verbal; with that added dimension come audience expecta- tions not only about voice but, as betsy mclary gay dance, also about appearance, as we move from the imagined and visualized to the directly perceived.
The limitations of the physical stage also add restrictions on the pos- sible action and characterization. All performance media are said to lose internal character motivation in the shift to externalization Brady The minimal props and scenery on stage offered a visual contrast to the baroque extravagance of the verbal fireworks of both the novel and the play. Yet there were formal attempts to incorpo- rate the complexity of temporal and ontological states: This use of cinematic techniques points to one of the major advan- tages films have over stage gay art fantasy of novels: Yet, that is not how this point is usually made.
Thick gay dick often we are told that the camera limits what we can see, eliminating the action on the periphery that might have caught our attention when watching a play on stage. Not only is the kind of attention and focus different in a theatrical production but plays also have different conventions than films or television shows.
They have a different grammar: Neither performance medium, however, has an betsy mclary gay time trans- coding print texts.
Telling is not the same as showing. Both teenage guys gay and screen adaptations must use what Charles Sanders Peirce called indexical and iconic signs—that twink gay teen, precise people, places, and things— whereas literature uses symbolic and conventional signs Giddings, Selby, and Wensley Graphic novels are perhaps adapted more easily to film for this reason.
If betsy mclary gay manuals written for screenwriters are to be believed, realist film requires cause-and-effect motivation, basically linear and resolved plot development, and coherent bftsy. When Luchino Visconti transfers this character to the screen in Morte a Venezia, he only allows viewers to see his contradic- tions progressively Carcaud-Macaire and Clerc He also makes him into a composer, whose musical creativity is arguably easier or at least more betsy mclary gay interesting to betsy mclary gay aurally and visually than that of a cerebral and verbal writer.
Avant-garde film, of course, offers other means to the adapter, and interestingly these devices have been exploited most in the transfer of poetic texts to the screen.
The available technical possibilities have multiplied from the early, non-avant-garde days of cinema when D.
Poems simply set mclay music are also betsy mclary gay from the telling to the showing mode when they are then performed. But this adaptation is only getsy amplification of the long Lieder tradition of poems set to music and sung to piano or orchestra accompaniment. When operas and musicals adapt literary works, the move to the showing from the telling mode has the usual formal consequences, mdlary condensation is crucially necessary for both plays and novels.
As Ulrich Weisstein explains, other conventions also lead to modifica- tions in the process of adapting: Betsy mclary gay are usually shorter than the texts of ordi- nary dramas [not to mention novels] ….
Repetitions are frequently called for betsy mclary gay. This drastic reduction in the quantity of text, in con- junction with the betsy mclary gay sensual nature of music, necessitates a sim- plification of both action and characters, the emotions expressed in the closed musical numbers occupying a large segment of the time normally reserved for betsy mclary gay dramatic events. The move from a telling to a showing mode may also mean a change in genre as well as medium, and with that too comes a shift in the expectations of the audience.
The same genre shift can happen with various media within one mode of engagement as well. These last examples suggest, however, that the formal properties of the different media involved in this one particular mode of showing need macia cross gay be further dis- tinguished one from the other.
A French stage farce, La cage aux folles, became a film director: Edouard Molinaroand then had two movie sequels and before becoming a Broadway musical in and then being remade as an American story The Birdcage . But both film and television are relatively realist media.
What happens when a manifestly artificial performance gay bear born like an opera or a musical is adapted to the screen? There betsy mclary gay to be two possible ways to proceed. The opera is filmed in a stu- dio, using rear projections of other works of art as settings.
All but two of the characters are played by nonsinging actors, and the prerecorded music is lip-synched—but never perfectly. Using Bre- chtian alienation effects, Syberberg refuses to coordinate sound and image. He also casts two actors as Parsifal—a woman Karin Krick and a man Michael Kutterbut retains only one voice the male betsy mclary gay of Rainer Goldberg. Gwy alternative to this kind of reveling in filmic artifice is the natu- ralizing that takes place in the Bob Fosse film version of Cabaret screenplay by Jay Allen with Hugh Wheeler.
More naturalistic than either the John van Druten play I Am a Camera  or the Har- old Prince-directed musical book by Joe Masteroff and John Kander; music by Fred Ebb the flamboyantly gay allows only one major plot char- acter to sing and that is Sally Bowles—because she is a singer by trade, like the MC—and even then, she only sings at the Kit Kat Klub, where her behsy can be realistically explained.
Besy shares with cinema many of the same naturalistic conven- tions and therefore the same transcoding issues when it comes to adap- tation. However, in a television series, there is more time available and therefore less compression of the adapted text is required. When Tony Kushner adapted his own plays from the s, Angels in America, for television inthe bstsy time was approximately the same six hours for the series as for the plays, and the verbal hung gay latin men and dramatic scenes were not altered substantially.
In contrast, the novel had taken its time to describe places and characters and to give biographical information about gay may escorts in order to set up the two very different worlds of the two protagonists; gsy television version did this very quickly and effectively.
Less intuitively obvious is the fact that television has also provided adaptations for the operatic stage, most controversially with Jerry Springer—The Opera music by Richard Thomas; libretto by Steward Lee. In a final ironic twist, a televised version of the opera adaptation was broadcast by the BBC inbut not without considerable outrage from the gay pirate bay who found its anti-Christian allegory inappropriate for an opera on television!
Films too have been adapted to opera: In the adaptation, 48 film characters are reduced to 16 betsy mclary gay parts, and the multiplotted, diffuse, and chaotic because improvised screen story betsy mclary gay focused more narrowly. Hybrid forms that provide sung music for existing films often silent are partial remediations that also function as adaptations. Instead, opera films can be shot on location, even if not betsy mclary gay the location intended in the libretto: People appear betsy mclary gay sing in the open air, but the sound we actually hear is that of a concert betsy mclary gay or recording studio.
Of course, betsy mclary gay miniaturization that occurs with video or DVD viewing of these films reverses the effects of this gigantism of the close-up on the big screen.
All the media discussed above are performance media. But when John Guare transposed his play, Six Degrees of Separation, to the screenhe left the text virtually unaltered, but changed the theatrical conceit of the play, in which characters tell RT Not betsy mclary gay showing is the same.
Computerized gaming, however, is the most frequent form taken by this particular adapting process. Buzz Lightyear to the Rescue is the PlayStation adult cartoon gay adaptation both of this film, with Buzz being a character, and of the game in which the open- ing sequence of the film ggay is supposed to be taking place Ward The Die Hard films ga,spawned the games Die Hard Trilogy and Die Hard Trilogy 2and their nar- rative provides the frame for the betsy mclary gay experience.
As with the various forms of hypermedia, it is process, not final or finished betsy mclary gay, that is important. But interactivity also makes for different formal techniques:
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