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An email has been sent to. Please check the system requirements below! I'm at least 18 years old and accept the Terms gay sex database Service. I accept the processing of my personal data. Thus, the act of seeking which would include surfing triggers the reward system [ 22 ]. Some internet activities, because of their power to deliver unending stimulation and activation of the reward systemare thought to constitute supernormal stimuli [ 24 ], which helps to explain why users whose brains manifest addiction-related changes get caught in their pathological pursuit.

To databaee this phenomenon, Tinbergen ses artificial bird eggs free gay animation were larger and gay sex database colorful than actual bird eggs.

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Surprisingly, the cancun gay boys birds chose to sit on the more vibrant artificial eggs and abandon their own naturally laid eggs. Similarly, Tinbergen created gay sex database butterflies with larger and more colorful wings, and male butterflies repeatedly tried to mate with these artificial butterflies in lieu of actual female butterflies.

Evolutionary Psychologist Dierdre Barrett took up this concept in her recent book Supernormal Stimuli: We humans can produce our own. In short, generalized internet chronic overuse is highly stimulating. It recruits our natural reward system, but potentially activates it at higher mature gay men hq than the levels of activation our ancestors typically encountered as our brains evolved, making it liable to switch into an addictive mode [ 27 ].

In the review that follows we will first provide an overview of the major theoretical understanding or models gay sex database addiction involving substances and of gay sex database neuroscientific basis on which the addictive processes work, whether there is involvement with substances or behaviors.

We will then review the existing neuroscientific gay men freesex relating to the behavioral aspects of addiction generally, then the more specific problem of Gambling Disorder, and then progress to the flood of recent studies on IA, and its subtypes of gaming and pornography. The majority of studies discussed examined key aspects of addiction involving behaviors through laboratory investigation, including functional neuroimaging studies and structural gay sex database resting-state neuroimaging studies.

These bear on the established science relating to addiction generally.

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Gay sex database relevant, we have also discussed neuropsychological studies, which gay pictures 4000 laboratory behavioral parallels with brain studies such as those on gay sex database brain abnormalities thought to be the result of addiction.

We have chosen to narrow our focus primarily to the neuroscientific gay sex database findings relating to addiction involving behaviors, despite the fact that there is also a large and growing body of research free gay men scat to their clinical presentation, epidemiology, health effects, public health ramifications, etc.

While that line of research overwhelmingly supports the prevalence and risks associated with Internet and Internet related addiction, it is outside the scope of this neuroscience focused review. Thus we believe that it makes sense to limit this review primarily to the studies that meet the most rigorous requirements, studies that address gay movie shelter neurobiochemical and neurophysiological processes known to underlie gay sex database generally.

We hope that the articles reviewed here will make it clear that the dozens of studies supporting IA and each of its subtypes as being neuroscientifically similar to substance addiction and will demonstrate that all of the possible Internet behaviors must be considered as potentially addictive in the same way, as variations on a theme rather than separate disorders, just as diverse forms of gambling e.

In fact it is the case that most IA studies around the world have considered the various Internet behaviors in this light.

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To conduct the research, an extensive literature search and review was performed utilizing a variety of sources: A universal inclusion criterion was publication in a gay dandy videos journal. Continuous rechecks of the more rapidly emerging subject areas e. As such, an exact xatabase of results reviewed was impossible to calculate as the rechecks often returned results already reviewed.

Some manual screen of ambiguously titled papers was required performed by first author. The reference management tool Zotero gay sex database used to build a gaj of gay sex database articles considered.

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The scope of this topic was limited to the previous ten years, with primary focus given to articles gay sex database in the past five years. Gay sex database publications considered key developments within the scientific advancement of this field were also included for example, Blum et al.

This scope was not time-delimited, as it is an emerging topic whose entire historical context is relevant. Analytical priority, however, was given to literature reviews, and articles published via a newest to oldest methodology. The superman naked gay search terms and their derivatives were used in multiple combinations: Multiple combinations of the gay sex database search terms and their derivatives were used in conducting the gay sex database As this is another emerging topic, there was no time-scope set for this topic, although priority was given to studies and reviews published in the previous five years.

Special attention to gay travel market was required here, as the disorder madison gay bar studied under different headings.

As such, the following search terms and their derivatives were used in multiple combinations: No time-limitation was placed on this topic, and the following search terms and their derivatives were used in multiple combinations: A less-than-exhaustive final selection approach was taken based on the fact that the APA has already approved IGD as a research-worthy diagnosis, and thus the full volume of articles in this subject area was not needed to support gay sex database premise.

Research into the area of addictive sexual behaviors on the Internet began with an inquiry into the various constructs surrounding compulsive sexual behavior.

There was no specific time-delimitation for this search, however, gay sex database with behavioral addiction, analytical priority was placed upon literature reviews and articles published via a newest to oldest methodology. Additional screening was required to gay car blowjob articles about IP included and non-IP not included.

Multiple combinations of the following search terms and their derivatives were used: All drugs of abuse affect the mesolimbic dopamine DA pathway, which originates from the ventral tegmental area VTA and projects into the nucleus accumbens NAcc.

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Commonly called the reward center, the NAcc is heavily connected with pleasure, reinforcement learning, reward seeking, and impulsivity.

The mesolimbic dopamine pathway connects with three other key regions to form a collection of integrated circuits commonly called the gya system: The amygdala positive and negative emotions, emotional memoryhippocampus processing and gau of long term memories gay sex database, and the frontal cortex coordinates and determines behavior.

Taken together, the reward system and gay weights movie connecting regions modulate, among other things, hay, reward, memory, attention, and motivation [ gay sex database ].

Naturally occurring behaviors such as eating and sex, gay sex database evolved such that they activate the reward system due to the fact that they reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [ 20 ].

The past decade has yielded multiple theories of addiction, all of which involve the reward system and related brain regions and substrates [ 44 ]. Nora Volkow gag addiction as a neurobiochemically based shift from impulsive action learned through positive reinforcement to compulsive actions learned through negative reinforcement [ 43 ]. This in turn is seen as leading to an addictive cycle gay sex database progressively worsens over time.

Different classes of drugs activate the reward system through different means, however, the universal result is a flood of dopamine in the NAcc reward center. This results in acute positive reinforcement of the behavior that initiated the flood. In this impulsive stage, this positive reinforcement results in addictive related learning associations [ 45 ]. Neuroplastic changes begin to occur, however, as the continued release of dopamine in the NAcc leads to an increase in dynorphin levels.

Dynorphin, in turn, decreases the dopaminergic function of dattabase reward system, resulting in a decrease of the reward threshold and an increase in tolerance [ gxycollege gay sex ].

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The resulting negative emotional state leads to activation of brain stress systems and dysregulation of anti-stress systems. This leads to a decreased sensitivity to rewards and an increase in the reward threshold, which is called tolerance.

This further progresses to negative reinforcement as the individual continues to gay sex database in the addictive behaviors to avoid datbaase negative affect associated with withdrawal. A key point of aex stage is that withdrawal is not about the physiological effects from gay buttmunch specific substance. Rather, this model measures withdrawal via a negative affect resulting from the above process.

Aversive emotions such as anxiety, depression, dysphoria, and irritability gay sex database indicators of withdrawal in this model of addiction gay sex database 4345 ]. Researchers opposed to the idea of behaviors being addictive often overlook or misunderstand this critical distinction, confusing withdrawal with detoxification datwbase 4647 ].

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A second component of the reward system comes into play here; the mesocortical dopamine pathway. Specific affected areas within the prefrontal cortex include the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFCgay sex database for key components of cognition and executive function, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex VMPFC responsible for components of inhibition and emotional response.

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Taken together, the mesocortical dopamine pathway affects the cognitive component of reward processing [ 4345 ]. The I-RISA model integrates the increased salience of learned drug-related cues resulting from the gay sex database positive and negative reinforcement of the addictive behavior with newly developed deficiencies in top-down inhibitory control. This leaves the individual vulnerable to reinstatement of the behavior, and two primary mechanisms have been identified; cue-induced reinstatement and stress-induced reinstatement [ 43 databaee, 45 ].

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George Koob proposed an gay sex database of the second stage of addiction. In the opponent-process model of motivation, a-processes reflect positive hedonic effects and b-processes reflect negative hedonic effects. The application in addiction is that a-processes occur first and reflect tolerance. In contrast, the b-processes databade after the a-process have concluded and reflect withdrawal. Solomon and Chris collins gay [ gay sex database ] used skydivers as an example of the opposite, wherein the novice skydivers experience great fear when they jump b-process and some relief when they land a-process.

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Gay sex database they repeat the behavior, the balance shifts such that experienced skydivers experience some fear when they jump but great relief when they land. Koob [ 51 ] overlays a detailed biologic model onto the psychological opponent-process theory.

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The aforementioned dattabase levels of dynorphin further elevate CRF, and the engagement of these systems brings about many of the negative affects linked to the withdrawal stage. Compounding the problem, the brains anti-stress system also becomes dysregulated, as evidenced by decreases big fat gay moive neuropeptide Y a natural anxiolytic in the brain.

The gay sex database system subsequently develops an altered set-point, leaving the individual vulnerable to relapse and dependence.

While both the Anti-Reward gay sex database I-RISA models include learning components, other theories of addiction focus primarily on the learning aspects of addiction, and the biological underpinnings thereof.

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Everitt and Robbins [ 5556 ] propose a model of addiction as a steady transition from voluntary actions to habitual actions to compulsive actions. Their model includes a combination of classical Pavlovian stimulus-response conditioning and instrumental learning, and they presented evidence illustrating a shift in brain activity from the ventral striatum location of the Gay sex database to the dorsal striatum brain region established for compulsive behaviors through the course of the development of gay sex database.

The Incentive Salience theory follows the framework of a hypersensitized mesocorticolimbic DA pathway, however, this gay sex database focuses on the motivational attributions attached to the behavior, rather than pleasure or reward [ 58 ]. Robinson and Berridge [ 61 ] recently updated their model gay as pictures remove the necessity of the component of liking, illustrating wanting as the only component of Incentive Sensitization theory.

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gay sex database Genetics, as they are relevant here, can be divided into databaxe mechanisms; Genetic heritability, addiction related genetic expression xex the individual, and epigenetics intersecting the two. Volkow and Muenke [ 63 ] report common genetic factors on both sides of dual diagnoses; for example, ADHD cute teen lads gay substance abuse.

Agrawal and colleauges [ 64 ] performed a literature review and identified addiction related genes as belonging in one of two categories; genes that potentiate metabolic changes in response to gay sex database substances, and genes that influence reward-system behaviors such as DRD2.

These authors also found that early stages of addictive process were more tied to environmental factors, while later dataabase were more tied to heritability. These interruptions result in a gaay state that yields a predisposition to addictive, compulsive, and impulsive databbase, as well as gay sex database personality disorders.

A large amount of research on the molecular explanation for addiction has emerged in the last decade, often focusing on the roles of CREB, DeltaFosB and glutamate [ 2686970717273 ]. The sum of this research indicates that blake gay porn flooding of dopamine in the reward system triggers an increase in the production of cyclic AMP cAMPa small molecule that then signals the release of gay sex database response element-binding protein CREB.

CREB is a protein that regulates the expression of specific genes.

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In this case, the result is the release of dynorphin, a protein that slows the release of dopamine ga inhibits the VTA, thereby dampening the reward system. Researchers believe this to be the molecular gay sex database sxe tolerance, as increased amounts of the drug or behavior are required to overcome the increased gay in bondage of CREB.

This process is also involved with dependence, as the inhibited reward gay penfriends gay sex database the individual in a state of anhedonia when abstinent from the source of gy dopamine release.

When the addict becomes abstinent, CREB levels gay sex database drop, tolerance fades, and sensitization begins. At this point, DeltaFosB becomes the predominant factor. DeltaFosB is a transcription factor that operates partially in gay sex database sx manner to CREB, in that it suppresses dynorphin and increases sensitivity in the reward pathway. Additionally, whereas elevated CREB levels dissipate quickly, the elevated levels of DeltaFosB remain for extended periods—weeks gay ass galeries months.

This enhances response to rewards and reward army gangbang gay cues, leaving the individual sensitive to addiction related cues and vulnerable to compulsive behaviors and relapse.

A third component is the neurotransmitter glutamate. Researchers are finding glutamate to be intimately involved with the learning component of addiction, and the increased amount of dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic pathway leads to an increased sensitivity to glutamate. Olsen cited fMRI studies showing gambling, shopping, sex orgasmvideo games, and the sight of appetizing food to activate the mesocorticolimbic system and extended amygdala in the same manner as do drugs of abuse.

In their review of the genetic heritability of behavioral addiction, Lobo and Kennedy [ 75 ] reported pathological gamblers to be three times more likely to have a parent who is a pathological gambler, and twelve times more likely to have grandparent.

Blum has consistently included addictive behaviors in his constellation of domains impacted by RDS. In an early paper on the reward cascade, Blum et al. The following list represents specific behavioral problems currently tied to RDS gay sex database note here that we use the original terms, although we would not categorize Internet Gay sex database or Aberrant Sexual Behavior under the term Compulsive Behaviors:. Exposure to these behaviors, just as occurs with exposure to rewarding drugs, is facilitative of the addiction process rather than causative of addiction.

The state of brain anatomy and physiology is the underlying gay sex database that is more directly causative of addiction.

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This article contains references, and breaks the findings down into three categories: Brain function and neuroimaging results, neurotransmitter systems, and genetics. Gambling, Internet, gaming, shopping, kleptomania, and sex. The left column of the table included a summary of the existing research on the specific behavioral addiction, and the gay sex database column contrasted them with corresponding findings gay sex database substance abuse.

The authors concluded that there is limited but emerging data connecting different behavioral addictions with existing research on gay sex database abuse.

These authors used Gambling Disorder as the reference gay sex database for behavioral addictions, although they next acknowledged binge-eating disorder as showing a common neuropathophysiology with substance addictions.

Included in their findings, these authors report. As in alcohol dependence, an inverse relationship between ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation and self-reported impulsivity was observed in both the pathological-gambling and alcohol-dependent groups suggesting that this feature of blunted ventral striatal activation across behavioral- and substance-addiction groups relates similarly to impulsivity.

The concept of food as addictive has been particularly studied in recent years, including heavy research into the neurobiological components of binge eating and obesity [ 798081828384858687888990 ]. In addition to the aforementioned research into the neurobiology of both substance use disorders SUDs and addictive behaviors, there is a substantial body of research mass effect 2 gay into the neurobiology of Gambling Disorder GD known as Gay sex database Gambling PG prior to the DSM Indeed, as mentioned in the Fineberg et al.

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For example, Potenza [ 9192 ] published two literature reviews specific to the neurobiology of GD. These findings are reinforced in his second study, in which he found multiple brain regions ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, among hookup gay fistersand gay muscle guy sex systems norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioid, and glutamate to be altered in disordered gay sex database [ 91 ].

The authors illustrated multiple similarities between GD and SUDs in regards to brain function frontal cortices, striatum, and insula and neurotransmitter system research findings dopamine, serotonin, opioids, gay sex database, and norepinephrine.

Similarly, el-Guebaly and colleagues published a review investigating gay sex database appropriateness of fit of GD as an impulse control disorder or as an additive disorder [ 93 ].

Based on findings of applicable neurotransmitters, neurocircuitry, and genetics as well as response to pharmacotherapies, these authors found that GD gay sex database SUDs had more in common than between GD and impulse control disorders.

As a final example, Gyollai et al. This recognition of GD as a non-substance-related disorder i. Since that time, neuroimaging studies and reviews continue to emerge. For example, Singer et al.

Categories

In particular they described a number of studies which lend support to the idea that exposure to reward unpredictability can cause gya responses in the dopamine systems, which in turn mediates incentive salience databsse reward-related cues.

The reviewers gay sex database touched upon studies suggesting that cortisol plays a gay free photos in modulating incentive daabase in the ventral striatum, i.

Finally, a recent review by Romanczuk-Seiferth et al. They examined the recent neuropsychological, gay place to live, and neuroimaging studies of GD based on the three main clusters of diagnostic criteria: Researchers have been studying IA for nearly two decades. Among these reviews, at least 10 have reviewed, in part or in whole, gay sex database research on the neurobiological findings regarding IA [ 15,,gay sex database,].

Internet addiction comprises a heterogeneous spectrum of Internet activities with a potential illness value, such as gaming, shopping, gambling, or social networking.

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Gaming represents a part of the postulated construct of Internet addiction, and gaming addiction appears to be the most widely studied specific form of Internet addiction to date. Among the peer-reviewed gay sex database, only three articles were actually specifically gay rump humper on Internet Xnxx gay video [, ].

The APA has now focused on Internet gaming. We argue, however, that also other applications can be used addictively Therefore, we summarize results of previous studies on Internet addiction in a broader way, although a great proportion of studies published so far concentrated on Internet gaming.

Similarly, for the purposes of this review, any study gay sex database databaae IGD as a subtype of Xatabase is classified as an IA study for the purposes of this review, although many use gaming as the prototypical example. While this study was not specific to neurobiology, agy authors briefly reported on findings in this area, concluding:. Regardless of nomenclature inconsistencies, gay sex database is critical to note that much of the results of both reviews are directly in line with many of the aforementioned gay sex database of addiction findings [ 4434451 dstabase, 55565761 ].

As daatabase of these findings, the mesocorticolimbic reward system was found to be impacted in the same manner as with substance abuse, as was the cue-induced craving phenomenon. These researchers investigated the gay sex database, comorbidity, diagnosis, electrophysiology, epidemiology, gay sixty nine genetics, neuroimaging, and treatment pharmacological and non-pharmacological of the disorder.

Similarly, in their review focused primarily on treatment models for IA, Winkler et al. One recent review focused on the role of prefrontal control functions in Sec and summarized neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on this topic [ 15 ].

In line with the aforementioned addiction models [ 443445155565761 ], and particularly based on aex results gay sex database datanase studies in Internet addicted individuals, the authors concluded that IA seems to be related with structural and, more prominent, functional brain changes in cortical e.

These brain changes are in gay sex database considered neural correlates of reductions in executive control, especially in situations in which addiction related cues are present.

The authors posited that the processes of cue-reactivity and craving might accelerate the problems in executive control functions [ 15 ].

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These authors started with 61 articles, gay sex database they consolidated to 10 voxel-wise whole-brain analysis studies. In another recent literature review on the neurobiology of IA, Zhu, Zhang and Tian [ ] specifically reviewed molecular mechanisms through neuroimaging studies utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRIpositron emission gay sex database PET and single photon emission computed tomography SPECT.

These authors found that IA is associated with dysfunction in the brain dopaminergic systems just like addiction involving substances; enola gay take MRI studies have shown structural changes in the brain in IA subjects, with the impaired cognition and behavioral control found in IGD adolescents specifically, being associated with structural brain changes in the pre-frontal cortex and insula that are darabase of addiction.

A burgeoning number of studies on the genetics of IA are emerging.

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For example, Montag et al. These researchers found a significant increase in a specific polymorphism databasse the CHRNA4 gene in the Internet addicted subjects. Moreover, Lee et al.

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Additionally, Han et al. In the study of wex behaviors, both resting state EEG and event related potentials may be employed. Event-related potentials ERPs are time-locked responses to experimental tasks or stimuli.

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For example, Yu, Zhao, Li, Wang and Zhou [ ] tested subjects using auditory oddball tasks and gay sex database reduced P amplitudes and increased P latencies in IA subjects compared to databasr controls. Fay P have been reported in other substance abusers [ ], and suggest poorer memory and gay sex database allocation. The authors also reported a weakening of gamma oscillation intensity, which has been demonstrated is related to reduced dopamine levels.

The IGD group had significantly lower P amplitudes during the gay sex database of rewards, leading the gay games authors to conclude that the blunted P reflected deficits in IGD subjects reward system, a finding in line with substance addictions.

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These authors aex these P latency increases to return to normal levels after subjects completed gay sex database three-month CBT program. A second longitudinal study reported abstinence along with treatment improved short-term memory and normalization of P amplitudes and latencies [ ]. These last two studies suggest that bb gay personals changes may a consequence of IA.

Lower N2 amplitudes in neuropsychological tests parallel findings in alcohol use disorder [ ]. Finally, Yu, Zhao, Wang, Li gay sex database Wang [ ] employed a keystroke mismatch task to asses N differences between excessive Internet users and controls.

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